What is Bitcoin Mining? Unveiling Crypto Creation

What is Bitcoin Mining? Unveiling Crypto Creation
TabTrader Team
TabTrader Team
Reading time is 11 min
Publication date is

What Is Bitcoin Mining?

Bitcoin mining entails the verification and registration of transactions on the Bitcoin network. This crucial process serves a dual role: ensuring transaction authenticity to combat fraudulent activities and facilitating the addition of fresh blocks to the blockchain, resulting in the decentralized creation of new Bitcoins.

Key Takeaways

  • Bitcoin mining involves the exploration of new blocks, the validation of transactions, and their subsequent inclusion in the Bitcoin blockchain.
  • Whenever a new block is discovered, the miner who successfully accomplishes this task earns the privilege to populate the block with fresh transaction information.
  • In exchange for dedicating their time and resources to this endeavor, the winning miners are granted a predetermined amount of newly created bitcoins, referred to as the "block reward," along with any transaction fees associated with the transactions they include in the newly formed blocks.
  • This mechanism of rewarding successful miners with newly minted bitcoins is the sole method through which new coins are introduced into circulation.

As time progresses, the mining reward for Bitcoin gradually decreases. This ongoing reward reduction persists until the total circulation of Bitcoin reaches the cap of 21 million coins. At that point, the issuance of new bitcoins as a mining reward will cease, and Bitcoin miners will transition to receiving compensation in the form of fees for their mining efforts.

How Does Bitcoin Mining Work?

As new transactions emerge within the blockchain, they are initially gathered in a memory pool referred to as the "mempool." Miners play a crucial role in verifying the legitimacy of these pending transactions and subsequently arranging them into blocks.

Think of a block as a page within the blockchain ledger where multiple transactions, along with additional data, are recorded. Specifically, a mining node gathers unconfirmed transactions from the mempool and constructs a potential block.

Next, the miner endeavors to transform this candidate block into a valid and confirmed block. Achieving this requires solving a complex mathematical problem that demands substantial computational resources. However, for every successfully mined block, the miner is rewarded with a block reward, which consists of newly generated cryptocurrencies in addition to transaction fees. Now, let's delve deeper into how this process operates.

Bitcoin Proof-of-Work (PoW) Consensus Mechanism

A consensus mechanism plays a crucial role in a computer-driven system by selecting honest participants within a network to fulfill specific roles. In the context of blockchain technology, one such significant role is proposing new blocks of transactions.


Once added to the blockchain, blocks and their contained transactions become permanent, underscoring the importance of ensuring the validity of these transactions.

To ensure the validity of transactions before they are permanently added to the blockchain, several factors are checked. For instance, it is verified whether Jack possesses sufficient balance to send a specific amount of bitcoin to Olivia, and whether Jack has attempted to double spend the same balance. These types of verifications are necessary to maintain the integrity of the blockchain.

Participants who undertake the responsibility of performing these verifications are commonly known as "validators." They play a crucial role in the consensus mechanism of a blockchain network.

Different blockchain networks can employ various consensus mechanisms, each with its own approach to filtering out dishonest users. In the case of Bitcoin, the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus mechanism is utilized. In this system, validators, known as "miners," utilize specialized computing equipment to generate fixed-length codes known as "hashes."

The Bitcoin Mining Process


1. Hashing transactions

In the process of Bitcoin mining, the first step involves hashing transactions. Hashing refers to the conversion of transaction data into a fixed-length alphanumeric code known as a hash. This cryptographic hash function ensures the security and integrity of the transaction data.

When miners receive a set of transactions to include in a block, they combine them and apply a hashing algorithm to generate a unique hash value. This hash value is a representation of the entire block of transactions, making it easier to verify the integrity of the data without exposing the underlying details.

By hashing transactions, miners create a digital fingerprint that uniquely identifies the block and its contents. This fingerprint is essential for the subsequent steps in the mining process, where miners aim to solve complex mathematical problems to add the block to the blockchain.

2. Creating a Merkle Tree

Once transactions are hashed individually, the subsequent phase in Bitcoin mining is building a Merkle tree. This binary hash tree organizes the hashed transactions hierarchically.

To create a Merkle tree, miners pair up the hashed transactions and merge them into pairs. They then hash each pair, generating a new hash. This iterative process continues until a solitary root hash, termed the Merkle root, is achieved.

The Merkle root represents the entire set of transactions included in the block. It serves as a concise summary, allowing anyone to verify the integrity of the transactions without having to examine each transaction individually.

By creating a Merkle tree, miners can efficiently represent a large number of transactions in a compact and secure manner. The Merkle root plays a crucial role in the overall verification process and enhances the efficiency of Bitcoin mining.

3. Discovering a Valid Block Header (Block Hash)

A block header serves as a distinctive identifier for every individual block within the blockchain, ensuring that each block possesses a unique hash. During the creation of a new block, miners combine the hash of the preceding block with the root hash of their candidate block to generate a fresh block hash. In addition, miners must incorporate a random and arbitrary number called a nonce into the block header.

In the process of validating their candidate block, miners combine the root hash, the hash of the previous block, and a nonce, passing them through a hash function. Their objective is to repeat this process multiple times until they generate a valid hash.

The root hash and the hash of the previous block remain constant and cannot be altered. Consequently, miners must modify the nonce value iteratively until they discover a valid hash. For a hash to be considered valid, its output, referred to as the block hash, must be lower than a predetermined target value specified by the protocol. In Bitcoin mining, meeting this requirement entails the block hash starting with a specific number of zeros, which is commonly known as the mining difficulty.

4. Propagating the Mined Block

Miners repeatedly hash the block header with different nonce values until a valid block hash is found. The miner who discovers it broadcasts the block to the network. Other nodes verify its validity and add it to their copy of the blockchain. The confirmed block marks the start of mining the next block, while unsuccessful miners restart the process with a new candidate block. This cycle ensures blockchain progression and transaction integrity.

Earnings for miners and the impact of Bitcoin halving

Bitcoin halving is a significant event where the block rewards earned by miners are reduced by half. This mechanism is designed to decrease Bitcoin's inflation rate and the rate at which new Bitcoins enter circulation, thereby maintaining the stability of Bitcoin's price. Halving occurs approximately every four years after every 210,000 blocks have been mined, as outlined in the Bitcoin protocol by Satoshi Nakamoto. The precise number of Bitcoins in circulation is determined by this halving theory.


During the launch of Bitcoin, the block reward for mining each block was set at 50 Bitcoins. Since then, three halving events have occurred. The block reward decreased from 50 Bitcoins in 2009 to 25 in 2012, further halving to 12.5 in 2016, and currently stands at 6.25 Bitcoins from 2020 onwards. The most recent Bitcoin halving event took place on May 11th, 2020. The next halving will be in 2024.

How much Bitcoins have been mined?

As of July 2023, approximately 19.433 million Bitcoins, which accounts for approximately 92.538% of the total 21 million Bitcoin supply cap, have been mined and released into circulation.

The next anticipated Bitcoin halving event is projected to occur in the early months of 2024. Halving will persist until all blocks have been mined, reaching the ultimate goal of attaining the 21 million Bitcoin supply cap. This is expected to take place around the year 2140. Following this, Bitcoin miners will solely earn from transaction fees as the block rewards will no longer be issued.

What Are Hashes?

For bitcoin mining, hashes are generated using the SHA-256 cryptographic algorithm. This algorithm is a mathematical formula that converts an input of any length into a 64-digit hexadecimal code, ensuring a fixed-length output.

Cryptographic hashing can be likened to a specialized password generator. It takes any data input, whether it's a single word, a random string, or even an entire novel, and converts it into a distinct and unique 64-character combination.

These hashes possess several noteworthy characteristics:

  1. One-way: It is practically impossible to reverse-engineer a hash to determine its original input.
  2. Deterministic: When the same input is passed through the cryptographic hashing function, it consistently produces the same fixed-length code.
  3. Unique: Each generated hash code is entirely unique to its corresponding input.

For instance, if you were to modify a single letter in a word from a Lord of the Rings book and reapply the SHA-256 algorithm, the resulting hexadecimal code would be distinctly different from the original, despite the seemingly minor alteration.

Bitcoin mining difficulty

When Satoshi Nakamoto created the Bitcoin protocol, they established a target block discovery time of approximately 10 minutes. This means that miners are expected to find the winning code to discover the next block within this timeframe.

To ensure that new blocks are discovered around every 10 minutes, the Bitcoin protocol employs an automatic adjustment mechanism. Every two weeks, the protocol dynamically adjusts the difficulty of the mining process based on the speed at which blocks are being found. If blocks are taking longer than 10 minutes, the difficulty decreases, making mining easier. Conversely, if blocks are found too quickly, the difficulty increases, making mining more challenging. This adjustment involves modifying the required number of leading zeros in the target hash.

The crackdown on mining activities in China in 2021 had a historic impact on the Bitcoin network difficulty, resulting in a significant drop. This, in turn, led to increased mining revenue for remaining miners.

Through this system, the Bitcoin protocol strives to maintain block discovery times as close to the target of 10 minutes as possible, ensuring the overall efficiency and integrity of the network.

Types of Cryptocurrency Mining

Cryptocurrency mining methods can vary as new hardware and consensus algorithms emerge. You can find a dedicated article on cryptocurrency mining methods in TabTrader Academy. Miners often utilize specialized computing units to tackle complex cryptographic equations. 

Let's explore some of the most prevalent mining methods:

CPU mining

Initially, CPU mining involved using a computer's CPU for hash functions in the PoW model. With low costs and barriers to entry, it allowed widespread participation. However, as mining popularity and network hash rate increased, CPU mining became difficult. Specialized mining hardware further rendered CPU mining almost obsolete. Presently, all miners rely on specialized hardware, making CPU mining impractical.

GPU mining

Graphics processing units (GPUs) gained popularity for mining due to their ability to perform parallel processing. GPUs are more efficient than CPUs for certain algorithms and became widely used for mining various cryptocurrencies.

ASIC mining

Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are specialized mining devices designed solely for mining cryptocurrencies. ASIC miners are highly efficient for specific algorithms and have become the standard for mining Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

Cloud Mining

This method allows individuals to participate in mining without owning or maintaining physical mining hardware. Users can rent computing power from mining farms remotely and receive a share of the mined cryptocurrency.

Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Stake (PoS)

These are different consensus algorithms that govern how new blocks are validated and added to the blockchain. PoW requires miners to solve computationally intensive puzzles, while PoS relies on participants "staking" their coins to validate transactions and create new blocks.

It's important to note that mining methods and equipment evolve over time, and the most effective approach may vary depending on the specific cryptocurrency and its consensus algorithm.

What Are the Economics of Mining Bitcoin?

The economics of mining Bitcoin involve various factors that impact its profitability and sustainability. 

Here are some key aspects:

1. Cost of Equipment: Mining requires specialized hardware, such as ASIC miners, which can be costly to acquire. The initial investment in mining equipment significantly influences the economics of mining.

2. Electricity Expenses: Mining requires substantial computational power, leading to high electricity consumption. The cost of electricity is a critical factor as it directly affects mining profitability. Miners need to consider the electricity rates and efficiency of their mining operations.

3. Mining Difficulty: Bitcoin's mining difficulty adjusts regularly to maintain an average block discovery time of around 10 minutes. Increased competition and higher network hash rate can make mining more challenging, impacting profitability.

4. Block Rewards: Miners are rewarded with newly minted bitcoins and transaction fees for successfully mining a block. The block reward undergoes halving events, reducing the number of newly minted bitcoins over time. Miners must consider the diminishing block rewards and anticipate the impact on their profitability.

5. Market Price Volatility: Bitcoin's price is subject to significant volatility. Fluctuations in market prices directly affect the fiat value of mined bitcoins. Miners need to consider market conditions and price trends when evaluating the economics of mining.

6. Operational Costs: Apart from equipment and electricity expenses, miners must consider other operational costs, such as maintenance, cooling systems, and infrastructure expenses, which can impact profitability.

7. Regulatory Environment: Regulatory factors and compliance requirements can vary across jurisdictions. Miners must consider legal and regulatory aspects that could impact mining operations and associated costs.

Understanding and assessing these factors is essential for miners to determine the economics of mining Bitcoin and make informed decisions regarding their mining operations.

Is Bitcoin Crypto Mining Profitable in 2023?

Mining cryptocurrency can be a profitable venture, but it requires careful deliberation, risk management, and thorough research. It involves various investments and risks, including hardware expenses, the volatility of cryptocurrency prices, and potential protocol changes. Miners often employ risk management strategies and assess the costs and benefits involved before embarking on mining operations.

The profitability of crypto mining is influenced by multiple factors, with one crucial element being fluctuations in cryptocurrency prices. When cryptocurrency prices rise, the value of mining rewards in fiat currency also increases. Conversely, profitability can diminish in tandem with declining prices.

Mining profitability hinges significantly on the effectiveness of the mining hardware employed. Cost is a key consideration, necessitating a balance between hardware expenses and potential rewards. The cost of electricity is another crucial factor, as excessively high expenses can offset mining earnings and render it unprofitable.

Furthermore, mining hardware may require frequent upgrades due to rapid obsolescence. Newer models consistently outperform older ones, and miners who lack the financial means to upgrade their machines will likely struggle to maintain competitiveness.

Lastly, protocol-level changes have a significant impact. For instance, Bitcoin's halving reduces the block mining reward by half, affecting profitability. Moreover, Ethereum's complete transition from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism in September 2022 renders mining unnecessary.

To sustain profitability, miners must effectively manage these factors, adapt to protocol changes, and continually evaluate the cost-effectiveness of their mining operations.

Is Bitcoin Mining Legal?

Bitcoin mining is generally considered legal in most countries; however, there are exceptions. Some countries, including Algeria, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco, Nepal, Qatar, Russia, and Tunisia, have outlawed bitcoin mining. Additionally, there are energy concerns in countries like Sweden, where there have been calls for a ban on bitcoin mining within the European Union. It is important to research and understand the local regulations in the specific region one resides in.

As for the United States, bitcoin mining is legal at the federal level. However, it's worth noting that regulations may vary at the state level, and not all states permit bitcoin mining activities. It is advisable to review the regulations and laws of the state in which one intends to engage in bitcoin mining.

How Much Do Bitcoin Miners Make?

Bitcoin mining is a demanding process, and miners are rewarded with bitcoin for their efforts, which helps sustain the system.

Over time, the number of bitcoins rewarded for mining each block has decreased. Approximately every four years, or every 210,000 blocks, the reward is halved. It started at 50 bitcoins in 2009, decreased to 25 in 2012, further reduced to 12.5 in 2016, and most recently, in 2020, it became 6.25 bitcoins.

The value of bitcoin has also fluctuated over time. In the summer of 2013, when bitcoin was valued at around $100, 25 coins would have been worth approximately $2,500. Presently, with each block rewarding 6.25 bitcoins, the value amounts to around $171,685.

The maximum supply of bitcoins is limited to 21 million. As of now, more than 19 million bitcoins have been mined. Nevertheless, owing to the halving process, it will be approximately the year 2140 before the remaining bitcoins are mined. Even after the final bitcoins are mined, miners will retain a crucial role in validating transactions. Instead of block rewards, they will be compensated with fees paid by network users.

Closing thoughts

Cryptocurrency mining plays a crucial role in maintaining the security and stability of PoW blockchains like Bitcoin. It ensures the steady issuance of new coins and contributes to network integrity. Furthermore, mining offers the opportunity for miners to generate passive income. 

However, mining also comes with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. One of the prominent advantages is the potential income from block rewards. Nevertheless, this income is influenced by several factors, such as electricity costs and market prices, which can affect profitability.

Before engaging in cryptocurrency mining, it is essential to conduct thorough research (DYOR) and carefully evaluate all potential risks. Understanding the intricacies of mining and considering factors like equipment costs, electricity expenses, and market conditions is crucial to make informed decisions and mitigate risks effectively.


What Is Bitcoin Mining?

Bitcoin mining is the essential process of verifying Bitcoin transactions. Mining systems compete to solve cryptographic puzzles and, in return, are rewarded with bitcoins.

How does Bitcoin mining work?

Miners use specialized hardware to perform extensive calculations, attempting to find the correct solution to the cryptographic puzzle. The process involves validating transactions and adding them to new blocks on the blockchain.

Why do bitcoins need to be mined?

Bitcoin mining plays a vital role in securing the network and confirming transactions. It prevents double-spending and ensures the integrity of the decentralized blockchain ledger.

What are the rewards for Bitcoin miners?

Miners are rewarded with newly created bitcoins for each successfully mined block. The block rewards serve as an incentive for miners to continue their mining efforts and secure the network.

Is Bitcoin mining profitable?

Profitability in Bitcoin mining depends on factors like electricity costs, mining difficulty, hardware efficiency, and the current price of Bitcoin. It's crucial to consider these factors and conduct cost-benefit analysis before starting mining operations.

What are the risks of Bitcoin mining?

Bitcoin mining involves investment in expensive hardware, electricity costs, market volatility, and regulatory uncertainties. These factors pose risks that can impact mining profitability.

How Much Time Does it Take to Mine 1 Bitcoin?

Instead of directly mining one Bitcoin, cryptocurrency miners focus on mining one block, which grants a payout of 6.25 BTC per block. The process of mining a single Bitcoin block typically takes around 10 minutes. In theory, this suggests that mining 1 BTC would require only 10 minutes, as part of the 6.25 BTC block reward. Nevertheless, it is vital to grasp that numerous Bitcoin miners compete for the same payout for each block.

What is the Cost of Mining One Bitcoin?

As of July, 2023, the average cost of mining one Bitcoin in 198 countries stood at $35,456,77, exceeding the market price of one Bitcoin on the same date, which was $29,856. However, it is crucial to understand that fluctuating energy costs and the varying number of miners on the Bitcoin network continuously impact the energy requirements and overall expenses involved in mining.

How can I get started with Bitcoin mining?

Getting started with Bitcoin mining involves choosing the right hardware, setting up a mining rig, and joining a mining pool. It's essential to research and stay updated on the latest developments in the mining industry.

Further Reading

Looking to get started in crypto trading?

Try TabTrader on mobile or web!